Because construction methods, building materials and uses vary widely, refurbishment concepts must be attuned to each particular building. The considerable time frame in which the buildings we use originated ensures diversity.
At one end of the spectrum: refurbishment of newer buildings is growing in significance. Two examples date to the 1960s: a medical centre in Rotterdam and an office building in Milan.
A variety of shortcomings were remedied at an even more recent building: a school in Neubiberg, Germany, dating to the 1970s. At the other end of the spectrum: a medieval ruin in England. Careful interventions preserve not only the castle’s physical remnants, but also the atmosphere of the historic setting.